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Do you enjoy the outdoors, such as hill walking, trekking, climbing, paddle sports? Then take a look at our current news and stories related to the Great British Outdoors. News on where to visit, how to join one of our ”Outdoor” First aid courses with many FREE to join for families & friends in the Heart of Snowdonia, the Brecon Beacons & Pembrokeshire National Parks.


The xiphoid process /ˈzfɔɪd/, or xiphisternum or metasternum, is a small cartilaginous process (extension) of the lower (inferior) part of the sternum, which is usually ossified in the adult human. It may also be referred to as the ensiform process. Both the Greek derived xiphoid and its Latin equivalent ensiform mean ‘swordlike’.

In newborns and young (especially slender) infants, the tip of the xiphoid process may be both seen and felt as a lump just below the sternal notch. By age 15 to 29, the xiphoid usually fuses to the body of the sternum with a fibrous joint. Unlike the synovial articulation of major joints, this is non-movable. Ossification of the xiphoid process occurs around age 40.

National CPR/AED Standards Survey

You have until Friday, the 24th of May, to shape CPR and AED standards. The consultation is by Resuscitation Council (UK), the organisation that sets the guidelines for resuscitation practice.

Quality standards for CPR and AED awareness and training in the community are important. The council’s aim is to “remove barriers to people performing CPR, and give evidence-based and consistent guidance to trainers so that a national standard can be achieved.”

Key Points highlighted in the consultation

Remote First Aid helps businesses to adhere to standards, by providing training and equipment that is in line with requirements. We’ve studied the standards document, and will now highlight just some of the main areas that we can help you achieve compliance now and with any future changes adopted.

5.1 – Organisations where resuscitation is not their prime activity should:

  • Meet the legal requirement for first-aiders in the workplace, in accordance with The Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981
  • Train all staff to at least the CPR/AED Awareness standard.
  • Consider training key staff to an enhanced CPR standard.

Remote First Aid supports business in the above by delivering high quality training using high quality training equipment and all delivered by world-class trainers. Our training can be both face to face, fully on-line and blended.

5.2 Organisations with a responsibility to provide resuscitation in the community should:

Alongside all of the points listed in 5.1, the key differentiators are

  • Train key staff to an enhanced CPR standard.
  • Consider training some staff to become CPR Trainers.

In order to achieve this, organisations should:

  • Appoint an accountable person to manage first-aid and resuscitation provision, including training.
  • Provide access to appropriate training for all those with a duty to respond.

How we can support?

  • Enhanced training for first aid, including CPR/AED; the kind of intensive and extended training that Remote First Aid is well known for providing.
  • Train the trainer courses, enabling us to bring your staff up to the level of an instructor and provide them with the qualifications they need to deliver training in any number of topics.
  • Remote First Aid provide nationally approved CPR Manikins and AED training devices.

6. Training Standards – Training standards are defined for three distinct groups:

1. The general population – CPR/AED Awareness.

2. School children (taught via the new national curriculum in England only).

3. Those without a formal duty of care – Basic CPR/AED Training.

4. Those with a duty of care – Enhanced CPR/AED Training.

  • CPR/AED awareness will not require hands-on training.
  • Basic CPR/AED Training will require hands-on practice with appropriate manikins.
  • Enhanced CPR/AED Training will require hands-on practice and assessment of skills using manikins that give feedback on performance.
  • CPR training may comprise a variety of methods (e.g. formal courses, simulation training, video-based training/self-instruction, videos).
  • All training should include recognition of cardiac arrest, the need for an early 999 call, performance of chest compressions and retrieving and using an AED.
  • Enhanced training should include the above, plus: methods of artificial ventilation, compression/ventilation ratios, simulated use of an AED in a real-world (e.g. workplace) environment. Where possible, CPR performance should be objectively assessed using a simulated incident and a resuscitation training manikin that gives feedback on compression rate, depth, position and recoil. Records of an individual’s CPR training performance should be retained by the organisation.
  • At least annual refresher training should be provided.

We are the right training partner for the job.

  • Fully-compliant with the Resuscitation Council UK’s quality standards and guidelines.
  • A full suite of what we believe are the World’s leading manikins, from baby CPR/AED manikins to advanced models, giving the stated feedback required by the quality standards – compression rate, depth, position and recoil at https://www.remotefirstaid.com/trade-post-on-line-store/
  • A mixture of courses in varying degrees of difficulty and learning types, meaning we cater for people from the awareness level right through to the enhanced level. See https://www.remotefirstaid.com/

How you can get involved.


For more information on any of the above goods and services we offer nationwide call 01291661778.

First Aid Provision in Schools

How do the Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981 relate to first-aid provision in schools?

First Aid Provision in Schools

Remote First Aid Schools First Aid Training Provider, we come to your school!

Employers are responsible for the provision of appropriate first-aid equipment, facilities and first-aid personnel in respect of their employees – this includes schools, as they are workplaces. Although the Regulations do not require employers to provide first aid for anyone else, HSE strongly encourages employers to consider non-employees when carrying out their first-aid needs assessment and to make provision for them.

Additionally the Department for Education in England has produced guidance for English School. This document can be read in full here…

Remote First Aid provide school governors with a range of first aid training courses to select from

These include first aid work, emergency first aid in schools, AED training, Responding to anaphylaxis incidents, Outdoor & Forest Schools first aid courses for those working with children out of doors. All the above comply with the current regulations placed on school governers to provide the correct level of first aid training. Take a look at our suite of first aid training courses below.




First Aid Subject

The key subjects taught in the First aid at Work, Outdoor First Aid and First Responder courses can be seen bellows table of contents. As a reminder and to assist in developing knowledge, we are producing some short blog pages over the coming months for you. These will be posted below, so keep an eye out for each months subject. If you would like a subject to be posted up outline the key first aid protocols then drop us a message below.


First Aid Subject – Crush Injury

New British Standard (BS8599-1 2019) BSi First Aid Kits

First Responder Qualification


First Aid Subject – Crush Injury

Crush Injury:


A crush injury has occurred when a body part has been subjected to a high degree of force or pressure, usually after being squeezed between two heavy objects. This subject is taught in our First Aid at Work and First Responder training courses.

Crush injuries mainly occur on building sites, industrial sites, construction areas, storage warehouses and in road accidents. They can affect the blood flow to a limb. When the flow of blood to an area is restricted by a heavy weight, there is the danger of a build-up of toxins within the muscle below the site of the crushing weight.

If the blood flow is restricted or impaired for more than 15 minutes, toxins can be released into the rest of the body and cause kidney failure. This process called ‘Crush Syndrome’ and the patient is at a high risk of death.


For crushing less than 15 minutes:

  • Release the weight as quickly as you can, if safe to do so.
  • Dial 999 / 112
  • Control any bleeding.
  • Treat for shock.

For crushing more than 15 minutes:

  • DO NOT release the weight.
  • Dial 999 / 112
  • Monitor patient (AVPU)


  • DO NOT release the weight if crushed for more than 15 minutes, wait arrival of the Emergency Medical Services.

We hope you find this article useful. This is one in an alphabetical series of articles addressing various symptoms and their first aid treatments. If you would like more information on related resuscitation and first aid training, please get in touch if you have any questions on this subject or would like to talk through your training options with our team of experts.

Get in touch

Require a course?

Even though we are super busy meeting clients needs, we always try to work with you to get a student enrolled on to the course date of choice.

For instance we managed to get two leaders from Marlow Canoe club on to last weekends outdoor first aid course as late as 11am the day before the course commenced in the Wye Valley, Gloucestershire. While delivering this course our training team impressed a lead practitioner from a visiting Forest School provider in Bristol on our delivery; especially the practical elements within the forest setting we were using, that she booked a course there and then, starting next week, that’s less than seven days notice. In between all this our team are delivering a modular outdoor first aid course in Gloucester for the Kings school DofE team a long standing clients of RFA, which is being externally moderated by the awarding organisation we work with from Qualifications Network UK This ensures that full due diligence is carried out meeting our clients needs and meets the national occupational standards. Another longstanding client of ours the University of Surrey and its commercial arm Surrey Sports Park have booked our training team this week to deliver a range of training, from first aid, defibrillation, medical gases and safeguarding over a number of days. Finally this week Remote First Aid are working at the University of South Wales delivering medical gases training to thee Universities sports coaching teams and to Cardiff University Science Teams in responding to incidents with an AED.

Spinal Injury – First Aid -SPINAL

When dealing with a patient who may have a spinal injury, it is vital to follow some basic rules. The Spine contains the Spinal Cord, which is where the messages from the brain are sent to control the entire Body.

If damaged, the Spinal Cord cannot be repaired. The area where the spinal cord is damaged will affect the level of paralysis that occurs. Damaging the spinal cord in the lower lumbar region in the back, can result in the loss of use of the legs. Damage higher up can result in loss of control to vital life support systems, such as respiration.

The simple rule of spinal injury management are:

If there is someone who has hurt their back, do not move them.
If you think someone may have hurt their back or if there is the possibility that they have, do not move them.

When dealing with a patient with a suspected spinal injury, as a first aider your responsibilities are to support the person’s head and neck, explain to them not to move and to look straight ahead. Leave their body in the exact position you found it in. In many cases there won’t be a spinal injury, but we always treat as if they have damaged their back.

The only exceptions to the rule about not moving someone with a suspected spinal injury would be:

If the patient is in imminent danger, for example in a burning car.

If the patient is not breathing and you need to perform CPR, which would mean turning them onto their back.

The patient is vomiting and may choke if the vomit cannot “drain away”

If you do have to move a patient with a suspected spinal injury to perform CPR for example, you would use the “log roll”, this moves the patient in one single motion. If they are vomiting, they will choke if they remain on their back, so this would be a situation where they would need to move, again you would use the “log roll” to move them onto their side so that the vomit can come out.

Remember the Mnemonic SPINAL

S- Safety – Make sure you and the patient are safe

P – Patient – Tell the patient not to move
I  – Immobilise – Protect and maintain the airway and hold their head still
N -Neutral – Keep the head in a neutral position
A -Assess – for other injuries, but only if safe to do so
L – Leave them where they are or use the Log Roll if you absolutely have to move them.

As a first aider remember don’t move someone if you suspect there may be a spinal injury, unless it is absolutely necessary, leave the patient in the position you found them, support their head and neck, make sure that the emergency services are on their way, reassure the patient and keep them as calm as possible.

Wounds the Healing Process

When the body is cut, the body starts to repair injuries within the first 24 hours but it is between 48-72 hours and can be up to 21 days when the repair is fully carried out.

The clotting mechanism in the blood seals the torn blood vessels, so blood plasmas cannot escape into the tissue around the injury. This is important because the blood plasma is needed when moving nutrients around the bloodstream and it is needed to transport white blood cells, which fight infection around the injury so it can continue to repair. Blood clots form when skin breaks and the blood clots to stop the bleeding.

Healing happens in three different mechanisms:

The first is vascular spasm; this is when the smooth muscle in the blood vessel walls contracts as soon as the vessel is broken. This slows the bleeding while the other mechanisms become active.

The next mechanism is platelet plug formation. This is when the blood platelets become sticky and find a damaged vessel and form a type of plug to help close the gap in the broken blood vessel. However, this is only temporary and does not last lost to the third mechanism is needs to stop it completely.

The third mechanism is coagulation. Once the blood comes to the surface and leaves the blood vessels, it thickens and become a texture similar to a gel. This is coagulation. Blood clotting is actually when blood becomes solid. This happens when the temporary plug meets clotting factors from the blood. This forms a web of fibre and it becomes a clot. Fibrin is a mesh found in the blood and they are a web of clotting factors including enzymes, calcium ions and platelets. Once this has formed there are other cells such as white blood cells which fight infection reinforced the clot so it completely stops the bleeding.

As the healing process begins, the immediate effects of the injury start to feel better.

This healing process is:

· Absorption – of the swelling;

· Removal – of the debris and blood clots also known as the Pac-man effect because of the way it removes the waste products;

· Growth – of new blood capillaries to transport blood to the area;

· And finally, development – of initial fibrous scar tissue

After the first 12 hours since the injury occurred and in next 4 days the cells become active and new capillaries blood vessel form. They slowly grow and establish new blood circulation in the area. If this did not happen then the injury would not heal because you must have a blood supply for the repair of the damaged tissue.

As there is new circulation around the area, the blood supply can take away the debris of dead tissue cells and the first blood clot that was formed is cleared. The tissue that was damaged gets repaired by the scar tissue, which is the fibrous scar tissue that is around the injury, not the scars you’d see on the outside of the skin.

Landlords & Lifts

After a recent tragic case and successful prosecution by the Health & Safety Executive of when a 5-year old girl was killed in her own home by her landlords lift, we though we would highlight to landlords and employers the requirements expected of them and lift user safety. This article is in response to the tragic death in Weymouth in 2013, with the convictions being secured of the landlord and lift operators in January 2019.

Landlords where a lift is provided within a property are required to:

Provide tenants with safety critical information,

Provide a risk assessment for each user within that property,

Inspect the lifts that carry people every six months,

Have working emergency lowering and winding systems,

Not carry out any mechanical modifications and

Ensure the lift is operating a safe manner.

The legalisation quoted is under  The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 .

This legalisation covers all workplace equipment including workplace Defibrillators where they are provided and applies to workforce staff who are expected to respond to medical incidents with a Defibrillator.

The Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER) is for owners of lifts and the HSE provide information on maintenance and inspection regimes which can be read HERE.

You may read the full HSE article on the convictions mentioned above HERE.


Remote First Aid offer readers a range of information as downloads, that are FREE to access at all times.

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