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When attending our Outdoor First Aid courses, we teach a system where a first aider responding to a casualty that they have responsibility for the Patient Assessment Triangle (PAT). This helps the responder approaching their casualty to assess the patients condition as they approach them in a more proactive way due to the possible remoteness of your location. The PAT is carried out after the initial scene survey for Dangers.

The first aider/responder will be looking for:

  • appearance
  • work of breathing
  • skin colour

How Do I Perform Patient Assessment Triangle?
Patient assessment triangle should be completed within 30 seconds and can be performed starting across the incident area. The first aider should initiate their PAT the minute they visualize the casualty.
The casualties general appearance is reflective of the their perfusion and central nervous system functioning.
TICLS is an acronym which can be utilised to monitor appearance by assessing Tone, Inter-activeness, Consciousness, Look/gaze and Speech.
Work of Breathing
The casualties work of breathing is reflective of their current respiratory rate, work of breathing, and audible breathing noises.
Circulation to Skin
The casualties circulation to the skin is reflective of their current perfusion and adequacy of cardiac output.  Pallor, mottling, or cyanosis are abnormal appearances which require intervention by the first aider/responder.


We include this system as outdoor first aiders may or may not be situated in remote locations and will be required to request for additional medical support for their casualty if required.

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